Throughout the 19th century, women were excluded from European art academies.
Art academies – Men only!
The alternative to academies was private tuition, but this was expensive and thus only an option for women from wealthy families.
The reason behind the limited educational opportunities for women was the bourgeois educational values of the day. Young women were encouraged to be creative and musical in the home, and their talents were fostered through private lessons, but it was unconscionable for a woman to have actual artistic ambitions – and certainly not on a professional level. Any attempts by women to embark on independent careers were nipped firmly in the bud. A young woman was encouraged to develop good taste, but not to acquire knowledge.
Paris – The art metropolis
A number of private academies in France, such as Académie Colarossi, Grande-Chaumière, Académie Julian and Académie Matisse, gave lessons to women artists from many different countries in “classes mixtes” – i.e. studying alongside men. At these private academies, women had to overcome many obstacles; conditions were poor and tuition fees were double what they were for men. But the opportunity to study in the art metropolis drew hundreds of women from around the world to Paris.
In 1897 the École des Beaux-Arts opened its doors to women, but it retained its very conservative views on what constituted “proper” art practice.
Despite the unequal opportunities, many women doggedly pursued their artistic ambitions. Armed with brushes and canvases, they would swarm out to paint en plein air at art colonies in Worpswede, Hiddensee, Dachau and Murnau. These female artists were mockingly dubbed “Malweiber” by their male contemporaries – a term that roughly translates as “painter wenches”.
Conquering the academies
For decades, determined women artists in Germany and France protested vociferously against their exclusion from the public art scene, tirelessly campaigning to be accepted into art academies and organizations.
At last, in 1919, the Weimar Constitution granted men and women in Germany the same civil rights, meaning that art academies had to open their doors to female students. However, that did not automatically lead to social equality within the art world.